The “Arjuna Tree,” scientifically known as Terminalia arjuna, is a plant species native to the Indian subcontinent. It is recognized for its remarkable medicinal properties and has a significant place in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.
The tree’s name, “Arjuna,” holds historical and cultural significance, being referenced in ancient Indian texts such as the Rigveda and Atharvaveda. The bark of the Arjuna tree is particularly valued for its potential benefits, which include supporting heart health, aiding digestion, and possessing anti-inflammatory properties.
Due to its versatile therapeutic qualities, the Arjuna Tree is widely used in herbal remedies and Ayurvedic formulations aimed at promoting overall well-being.
Where Is Arjuna Tree Found In India
The Arjuna tree, scientifically referred to as Terminalia arjuna, is abundantly distributed across India. Its presence is particularly prominent in the sub-Himalayan regions and the eastern parts of the country.
Moreover, these trees flourish within the boundaries of Indian national parks, notably the Pench Tiger Reserve, Bandhavgarh National Park, and Kanha National Park.
This species predominantly thrives along the banks of rivers and streams in both northern and southern India.
How Does Arjuna Tree Look?
The Arjuna tree (Terminalia Arjuna) possesses distinctive characteristics that make it easily recognizable. Let’s delve into its appearance and physical attributes:
Tree Size and Growth
The Arjuna tree is a substantial evergreen plant that typically reaches heights of 20 to 25 meters. Its growth is relatively swift, contributing to its majestic stature.
The tree showcases a spreading branching pattern, enhancing its visual appeal.
A noteworthy feature of the Arjuna tree is its gray-colored, robust bark, referred to as “Chaal.” The bark appears pale in color and possesses a unique texture.
Externally, it is notably firm and resistant, while the interior surface maintains a smoother texture. The bark has a tendency to peel off in sizable, flat segments, unveiling its distinct appearance.
The leaves of the Arjuna tree are simple in composition, adhering freely to the branches. Positioned opposite each other along the branches, these leaves take on an elliptic-oblong or oblong shape.
Their arrangement and shape contribute to the overall symmetry of the tree’s foliage.
Clusters of stalkless flowers grace the Arjuna tree, often found in auxiliary spikes. This floral arrangement adds a touch of elegance to the tree’s appearance.
The absence of stalks and the presence of these clusters contribute to the unique aesthetic of the Arjuna tree.
The fruits of the Arjuna tree are ovoid-oblong in shape, possessing distinctive features that aid in their dispersal. Notably, the fruits boast 5 to 7 hard angles or wings, a design that facilitates wind-assisted dispersion. This adaptation ensures the widespread distribution of the tree’s seeds, contributing to its reproductive success.
Terminalia Arjuna Common Name in India
- English: Tropical almond, White Marudah, Malabar almond, Arjun, Arjuna
- Bengali: Arjhan
- Gujarati: Sadada, Vellamatta,Sadado,
- Hindi: Arjun, Koha, Arjan, Arjuna, Kahu
- Kannada: Maddi
- Malayalam: Nirmarutu, Marutu, Attumarutu, Venmarutu,Pulamatti
- Manipuri: Maiyokpha
- Marathi: Arjuna, Arjun Sadada, Sadura
- Sanskrit: Arjuna, Indradruma, Dhanvi,Kakubha, Dhananjaya, Karvirak, Partha, Virataru
- Oriya: Arjuna, Sahajo
- Thai: Rok Faa Khaao, Dhanvi, Kakubha
- Telugu: Thella Maddi
- Tamil: Attumarutu, Marudha Maram, , Marutu Nirmarutu, Vellaimarutu
Ayurvedic Properties of Arjuna Tree
In Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine, the Arjuna tree (Terminalia Arjuna) holds specific properties that contribute to its therapeutic potential. Let’s delve into its Ayurvedic characteristics:
Rasa – Taste: The taste associated with Arjuna is described as “kashaya,” which translates to astringent. This astringent taste is known for its ability to create a sense of dryness and constriction.
Guna – Characteristics: The Arjuna tree exhibits the “Ruksha” quality, which denotes dryness. This characteristic aligns with its astringent taste, contributing to its overall medicinal profile.
Virya – Potency: Arjuna possesses a “Sheet” or cooling potency. This cooling effect has implications for its impact on the body’s internal balance and its role in addressing specific health concerns.
Vipaka – Post Digestive Effect: The “Vipaka” of Arjuna is characterized as “Katu,” meaning pungent. This post-digestive effect highlights the transformation of the herb during the digestion process.
In Ayurveda, these properties play a pivotal role in understanding how the Arjuna tree can be utilized to support various aspects of health and well-being.
The combination of taste, characteristics, potency, and post-digestive effects informs the herb’s applications in traditional remedies and formulations.
Therapeutic Uses of Arjuna(Prayogarha Vyadhi) in Ayurveda
In the realm of Ayurveda, the Arjuna tree (Terminalia arjuna) stands as a remarkable repository of diverse therapeutic indications, rendering it an invaluable asset in addressing an array of health concerns.
This revered botanical entity has been harnessed for centuries to offer solace and relief to various ailments. Here, we delve into the tapestry of conditions for which Arjuna finds its application:
1. Hridya Roga – Heart Conditions
Arjuna emerges as a trusted ally in the realm of heart health. With its intricate blend of properties, it finds a coveted place in the management of heart-related issues. Its potential to fortify cardiovascular well-being offers respite for those grappling with heart disorders.
2. Medo Roga – Obesity
In the pursuit of wellness, Arjuna’s therapeutic effects extend their embrace to individuals contending with obesity. Its multifaceted attributes are believed to contribute to weight management, thereby fostering holistic well-being.
3. Parmeha – Diabetes
The bounty of Arjuna’s attributes also extends to the realm of diabetes management. Its potential to assist in maintaining balanced blood sugar levels positions it as a potential aid in the journey toward diabetes care.
4. Arti Trishna – Pain and Thirst
In the realm of discomfort, Arjuna steps in as a potential source of relief. Its properties are believed to extend their support in mitigating both pain and thirst, offering a dual promise of respite to those grappling with these sensations.
5. Ura Kshata – Chest Injuries
For those enduring the challenges of chest injuries or traumas, Arjuna’s intrinsic properties are thought to orchestrate a symphony of healing and recovery. Its potential to nurture the wounded chest area underscores its significance in such scenarios.
6. Rakta Pitta – Hemorrhagic Disorders
The intricate balance of “Rakta Pitta,” or disorders characterized by bleeding tendencies, finds an ally in Arjuna. It’s potential to restore equilibrium positions it as a valuable tool in addressing hemorrhagic conditions.
7. Trishna – Thirst
In the face of insatiable thirst, Arjuna’s properties are believed to come to the rescue. Its potential to alleviate excessive thirst stands as a testament to its diverse range of effects.
8. Arti – Pain
The spectrum of Arjuna’s therapeutic benefits extends its reach to encompass various types of pain. Its potential to serve as a remedy for discomfort amplifies its stature as a versatile botanical resource.
Use of Arjuna Bark, Extracts, and Powder
The Arjuna tree (Terminalia Arjuna) offers its therapeutic benefits through various forms, each harnessed from different parts of the plant. Here’s a breakdown of the uses of Arjuna bark, extracts, and powder:
1. Arjuna Bark:
The bark of the Arjuna tree holds a central position in traditional medicine. It is commonly used to create decoctions, teas, and infusions.
The process involves boiling the bark in water, allowing the active compounds to be extracted into the liquid. Arjuna bark preparations are favored for their potential to support heart health, manage inflammation, and address digestive discomfort.
Arjuna extracts are concentrated forms of the plant’s bioactive compounds. These extracts are often available in supplement form, making it convenient to harness Arjuna’s benefits.
They are carefully formulated to deliver specific doses of Arjuna’s therapeutic components, offering a standardized approach to supplementation.
Arjuna extracts are commonly used to complement heart health, promote overall wellness, and manage specific health concerns.
3. Arjuna Powder:
Arjuna powder is a versatile option for incorporating the plant’s benefits into your daily routine. The powdered form can be mixed with water, honey, milk, or other liquids to create a consumption-friendly blend.
This allows for flexibility in adjusting the dosage according to individual preferences and needs. Arjuna powder is employed to support cardiovascular health, aid digestion, and address various health conditions.
Uses Of Arjuna Tree In Ayurveda
- It has light, astringent, and dry properties, so it pacifies Kapha whereas its cool properties help to vitiate pitta from the body
- It has properties that treat skin disorders and is also beneficial in the treatment of acne.
- It is an effective herb that helps to reduce bilious infections.
- It is beneficial in treating urinary tract infections, it also minimizes the burning micturition.
- Due to its diuretic actions, it is useful in treating urinary bladder and renal stones.
- It is a powerful tonic in treating liver cirrhosis.
- It strengthens the heart muscles and balances the disbursed heart rhythms by bringing down the heart rate.
- It is beneficial for sexual health, and the decoction of the bark (Chaal) can help relieve Spermatorrhea.
- When used with sugar, rice water, and red sandalwood can be a powerful tonic that can effectively cure tubercular cough.
- It is a powerful herb that lowers the chances of the formation of blood clots, it also rectifies the hardening of the blood vessels and helps in preventing strokes and heart attacks.
Terminalia Arjuna Medicinal Uses
Arjuna is an important herb of Ayurveda and all parts of the plant are used in making Ayurvedic medicine. The most valuable part of the plant is its bark, when cut it gives a milky white sap.
It also contains a valuable alkaloid, which is known as arginine. Besides this, it has chemicals such as lactone, sugars, arjunetin, and several essential oils. Below are some of the uses.
1. It Manages Shortness of Breath
Shortness of breath is generally seen in heart patients it is when the narrow coronary decrease the supply of oxygen to the heart. Terminalia Arjuna had a property that reduces the narrowness of the blood vessels.
It has a low-grade inflammation nature that reduces the deposited plaque in the blood vessels and thus helps in treating breathing troubles in heart patients.
It can give the best results when used in combination with other herbs as described under the coronary artery disease heading.
2. It Avoids Cardiovascular Disease
Arjuna can be very helpful in dealing with cardiovascular disease; it rectifies the functions of a left heart ventricle. It strengthens the heart muscles and develops the heart’s capacity to pump blood.
Arjuna’s cardioprotective actions help to protect the optimum functions of the heart and accelerate the healing process for cardiac injury.
It is an herb that is generally used for the prevention of Heart attacks. It is because it has an anti-atherogenic property, which helps to reduce plaque buildup in the coronary arteries and improves the blood flow to the heart tissue.
Besides this, it also improves blood flow to the heart and reduces the blockage of coronary arteries. In addition, it has an antioxidant property, which helps to maintain cardiovascular health.
3. It Prevents Heart Failure
Terminalia Arjuna decreases signs of heart failure by increasing the volume index of left ventricular stroke and the ejection process. The study also indicated that it helps to improve performance and effort tolerance.
Uses of Terminalia Arjuna bark ( Arjun Ki Chaal ) extracts can improve cardiac output and contractility process. It prevents and decreases cardiac dysfunction and helps to recover from myocardial injury in congestive heart failure.
The study in a rat also revealed that Arjuna bark( Arjun Ki Chaal ) repressed lipid peroxidation and acts as an antioxidant and had a comparable effect as fluvastatin, Lescol an approved modern drug.
4. It Improves High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure or hypertension is an extremely serious medical disorder that can cause heart failure. Besides this, it can also have various complaints related to it such as coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure, which are the most serious health problems related to it.
The common signs of high blood pressure include severe headache, vomiting, uneasiness, vision changes, nose bleeds, and confusion. Uses of Arjuna bark can be very helpful in these circumstances.
The herb Arjuna is high in Coenzyme Q10 it is a catalyst a natural antioxidant that is synthesized by the body and produces the energy in the body for normal functioning of the body.
It additionally safeguards the heart against damage caused by LDL cholesterin oxidization. Most of the Coenzyme Q10 is used by the liver and the heart as it is the main organ that functioned as the body.
So Using Arjuna can build up the artery walls blocking the walls and bringing up the blood pressure. Today supplement of Coenzyme Q10 is advised to improve heart functions and lower high blood pressure.
5. It Improves Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery is a disorder that is a common cause of heart failure besides uncontrolled hypertension. Using Arjuna can help to block the development of plaque accumulation.
It reduces inflammation in the blood vessels and coronary arteries and also controls cholesterol deposits and the creation of plaque.
It significantly decreases blood serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, and triglycerides. Terminalia Arjuna alone may not be helpful to treat coronary artery disease.
But if used along with other herbs like Tamra Bhasma, Shuddha Guggulu, Pushkarmool can work effectively to clear the blockage caused by cholesterin deposits.
6. It Diagnosis Atherosclerosis
Terminalia Arjuna is an herb that has hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties. These properties help to reduce low-grade inflammation of the blood vessels.
It additionally has antihyperlipidemic action that lowers serum denseness of total cholesterol, VLDL total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.
In a study, it was found that it had a reduction in the atherosclerotic lesion in a rabbit’s aorta. These effects are most probably due to their anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant features.
So we can say that Arjuna bark can be beneficial in decreasing atherosclerotic injury and stopping the progress of atherosclerosis as well as an atherogenic index.
Therapeutic Administration and Dosage of Arjuna
When it comes to harnessing the therapeutic potential of the Arjuna tree (Terminalia arjuna), Ayurveda offers a well-defined path.
Understanding the appropriate administration and dosage is crucial for unlocking its benefits. Here’s a glimpse into the recommended methods:
1. Kwatha (Decoction)
Dosage: 60-100 ml
One of the favored ways to consume Arjuna is through a decoction, commonly known as “Kwatha.” This involves boiling Arjuna bark or other parts of the tree in water, resulting in a concentrated liquid.
The recommended dosage of Arjuna Kwatha ranges from 60 to 100 ml. This method serves as an effective means to extract and assimilate the therapeutic properties of the plant.
2. Churna (Powder)
Dosage: 3-6 grams
Arjuna is also available in powdered form, known as “Churna.” Consuming Arjuna Churna involves measuring out 3 to 6 grams of the powdered herb.
This method offers flexibility and can be mixed with water, honey, or other suitable mediums for consumption.
3. Ksheera Paka (Decoction with Milk)
Dosage: 20-30 ml
The synergy of Arjuna and milk results in a preparation called “Ksheera Paka.” This involves boiling Arjuna with milk, creating a decoction that encapsulates the essence of both elements.
The recommended dosage of Arjuna Ksheera Paka ranges from 20 to 30 ml. The addition of milk not only enhances the taste but also enriches the preparation with the beneficial properties of milk.
- Terminalia arjuna, a Cardioprotective Herbal Medicine–Relevancy in the Modern Era of Pharmaceuticals and Green Nanomedicine—A Review(1)
- Terminalia arjuna prevents Interleukin-18-induced atherosclerosis via modulation of NF-κB/PPAR-γ-mediated pathway in Apo E-/- mice(2)
- Medicinal Properties of Terminalia Arjuna: A Review(3)